The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders classifies nearly twelve different anxiety disorders, from acute stress disorder to obsessive-compulsive disorder to panic attack and PTSD. But those who study and treat sufferers with anxiety disorders do not constantly differentiate the patients who be concerned, fret and ruminate from those who experience the panic, rapid heartbeat or bouts of arousal sweating that characterize anxious. Both of these kinds of anxiety may occur only or in combination, with important implications for treatment potentially. To check whether neural activation patterns supported the hypothesis that these two categories of anxiety are distinctive, the researchers selected 42 subjects from a pool of 1 1,099 undergraduate college students, using psychological checks to categorize them as ‘high anxious apprehension,’ ‘high anxious arousal,’ or neither.The scholarly study, published Oct. 12 in the journal Pediatrics, was funded by the U.S. National Institute of Child Human and Wellness Development. The results can assist doctors when deciding what medication to prescribe for short-term treatment of children and teens with bipolar disorder, said Findling, who is also director of child and adolescent psychiatry at the Johns Hopkins Children’s Center. The analysis was relatively short in duration, nevertheless, and Findling said that the consequences of long-term use of lithium in youngsters are currently being assessed, like the risk of weight gain, and kidney and thyroid problems. A clearer understanding of the long-term effect of lithium use is crucial because some people with bipolar disorder need life-long medication, he said.